Sports Supplements – Food Supplements

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Sports Supplements

– Most athletes think that additional preparations in their diet are an integral and necessary part of their success otherwise all the successes of key athletes have to do with consuming these preparations.

– Many athletes, trying to be the best and have an advantage over other athletes, are willing to use any additional preparation that is approached for this purpose. Therefore, this category of people falls prey to the producers of these preparations, who, thanks to the arrogance of the athletes and the sale of the preparations, benefit from the dizzying amount of money.

– Additional preparations in the nutrition of athletes have flooded the world of athletes, even in various forms: tablets, medications, drinks and dust, all of which “promise to increase” the performance of athletes.

– Many scientists, who do research in sports, believe that in raising the performance of athletes can not only affect a particular factor, but many interrelated factors (talent, training, diet and mental stability).

– Intake of complementary nutrients can be justified in cases where there is not enough food or variety of food, especially when it comes to essential substances. With complementary nutrients we can supplement our diet with micronutrients, but not macronutrients.

Ergogenic nutrients

Ergogenic tools are those additional tools, preparations or methods used to improve the performance of athletes, while they can be natural mechanical, pharmacological, physiological and nutritional.

– Ergogenic nourishing agents contain large and unusual amounts of nutrients, as well as other nutrients.

– These ergogenic nutritional preparations claim to increase muscle tissue, stimulate lipid burning and improve strength.

– Most ergogenic agents are blacklisted by WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) and classified as doping agents.

CaffeineCaffeine is a substance accepted in society and has found great use all over the world. Caffeine, in its natural form, is found in the leaves and seeds of some plants, while in the population it is found in the form of chocolate and some beverages, especially coffee, tea, cola. These drinks, in general, in a service give 30-100 mg of caffeine

– This substance has been found to be an integral part of the guarana plant. Due to the fact that caffeine is found in energy drinks, sports drinks and sports food, these drinks have found excellent use all over the world.
– Caffeine can also be found in the form of tablets with a concentration of 100-200 mg per tablet.

The effects of caffeine are:
* Mobilization of fatty acids in the blood and their use in energy delivery processes,
* Carbohydrate storage and thus, increasing durability,
* Impact on muscle contraction,
* Stimulation of adrenaline release and impact,
* Impact on the central nervous system, in terms of changing the feeling of fatigue.

– From these effects of caffeine we can understand that the impact of this substance is based on increasing endurance, as well as increasing the performance of athletes.

More precisely, caffeine affects:

* Short physical activity, but with high intensity, lasting 1-5 min.
* Prolongation of high intensity physical activity, lasting 20-60 min.
* Exercise lasting 90 minutes,
* Physical activity of ultra-stability, lasting over 4 hours,
* High intensity intermittent physical activity.
– In addition to these effects, caffeine also has a negative effect, so it should be used with caution and in certain amounts (accelerates heart function, anxiety, diarrhea, etc.), which reduces the ability to exercise.
– Preferably 2 hours before physical activity 3-6 mg per kg body weight. An athlete weighing 70 kg should consume a dose of caffeine 250-500 mg per day. Practically 2-3 coffees a day.

– According to the IOC (International Olympic Committee), the maximum allowable concentration of caffeine in the urine varies from 12 micrograms per milliliter of urine, equivalent to 9 milligrams per kg of body weight or 675 milligrams per day, which is equivalent to drinking 5-6 glasses. . coffee. The highest amount of caffeine in the urine represents a positive doping test.


Creatine is one of the most studied supplements not included in the list of banned elements, doping the IOK (International Olympic Committee) list. Creatine in its natural form in our body is synthesized by amino acids in the amount of 1-2 gr per day and is an important source of energy. Of the total amount of creatine that is about 120 grams per person with 75 kg PT, where 95% of all this amount is found in skeletal muscle with a significant metabolic role. The biochemical-metabolic role of creatine is:
Maintenance and renewal of the main energy component in our body – ATP. So, creatine enables the first and fast recreation of ATP during the process where the rapid phosphorylation of ADP and ATP is enabled with the help of phosphate creatine (ADP + phosphate cosine = ATP + creatine).

– Creatine can stimulate muscle protein synthesis by increasing muscle size. The increase in muscle mass is a result of the creatine’s ability to absorb water up to 400% in proportion to its weight.

– Creatine phosphate helps reduce acidity in muscle cells. So, during physical activity in our body in small or larger amounts lactic acid is created which increases the acidity in our body. Creatine delays fatigue by inhibiting the release of lactic acid and maintaining the acid-base balance in our body.

Sports-medical reasons to engage in sports

Based on its biochemical-metabolic function, creatine has the following sport-medical role:

1. Athletes take creatine in order to increase creatine phosphate stores and thus enable the rapid regeneration of ATP, as well as maintain high amounts of ATP molecules in muscle cells with whatever they want. increases energy storage capacity for high-intensity activities.

2. Creatine supplementation increases the ability to perform high-intensity sprints, so it is also used for dancing, weight lifting, etc.

3. Creatine improves the training process which includes a series of high-intensity repetitive exercises and short time intervals (less than 2 min).

4. Creatine supplementation increases the efficiency of carbohydrate metabolism during the execution of endurance exercises.

5. Creatine is also used in load-bearing exercises in order to further increase muscle mass.

6. Creatine supplementation increases athletic ability in those who have a prolonged vegetarian diet, otherwise consume in smaller amounts of nutrition.

– Creatine can also be taken with a balanced diet of fish and meat. Vegetarians take it in smaller amounts.

Ribose SupplimentsRibose
– Ribose is a pentose sugar that is found naturally in food, but can also be synthesized and served as a supplement. Ribose has a major impact on the structure, synthesis and regeneration of ATP.
Athletes take Ribozza as an adjunct to this goal:

a ib Riboza is additionally used during physical activities, where there is high intensity of the training process, in order to replenish energy depots in the heart muscle and skeletal muscle as soon as possible.
b} They accelerate muscle growth and develop,
c therapy Supplemental therapy during overload syndrome (excessive exercise) or improvement of symptoms of chronic fatigue,

d} Ribose is used during therapy of heart disease (coronary artery disease) and during fibromyalgia.

How to take: daily supplementation is done with a dose of 10-20 gr. using the D-ribose form during physical activity. It can be found commercially in capsule form, as a powder and as a juice. There is no particular problem with ribose filling

Coenzyme Q 10 (Ubikvinon)

– Coenzyme Q10 has lipid-like properties
similar to vitamins. This currency is local-
uar mainly in cellular mitochondria, in particular
in heart muscle cells and skeletal muscle.

The roles in the cell are:
* Increased use of oxygen in the cell with what
increases energy production through aerobic combustion.
* Coenzyme Q10 has antioxidant function.

– With such a supplement it is possible to increase aer-
sports facilities. This coenzyme is also used
as a therapeutic tool against cardiovascular disease
because it plays a role in oxidative metabolism (well-
the boy receiving oxygen to the heart muscle) and
is an antioxidant.

– The best supplement is 10-30 mg per day with a maximum dose of up to 100 mg.

Glyceron supplimentsGlycerol

Glycerin is an integral part of the fat molecule
(a fatty molecule of triglycerides is composed of glycerin
and fatty acids). Glycerin has a powerful capacity
to attract large amounts of fluids. This is
use athletes mainly in endurance sports like
a tool for hyperhydration as well as its ability to be easily metabolized in the process of gaining energy.

– By adding glycerin to the water before physical activity, it is possible to maintain the amount of water and thus increase physical ability.
for durability by reducing the degree of dehydration.

– Glycerin can provide hyperhidrosis for athletic endurance training or competitions in conditions with high climatic temperatures where fluid loss during exercise or competition cannot be compensated.

How to use: Glycerin should be taken and dosed with extreme caution. According to the protocol, 1 g of glycerin is taken per kg of athlete’s body weight.

Glutamine SupplimentsGlutamine
Glutamine is a non-essential amino acid that is synthesized, stored and released into muscle tissue, where it is also found in high percentages. Glutamine as the most dominant amino acid in the human body participates in the regulation of a number of important metabolic processes for the well-being of physical activity. Glutamine in the sports organism has the following functions:

1. Stimulation of protein synthesis in muscle cells. Experimental studies show that taking glutamine supplementation increases the level of growth hormone, which in turn stimulates protein synthesis in muscle cells (increasing the number of filament contractions) resulting in increased cell volume. muscle and greater contraction force.

2. Glutamine is the main source of energy for cells of the immune system. This means that glutamine supplements improve the athlete’s immune status.

3. Taking glutamic supplements prevents overtraining syndrome or excessive exercise syndrome. This means that the athlete loses immunity during the time he has been overworked and tends to get sick. 4. Glutamine is a substance from which glucose can be synthesized metabolically.

Recommendations for taking glutamine depending on the sport.

The required amount of glutamine increases during stress on the body such as: strong physical loads, damage to the muscular system and in conditions of diseases of the body. Since our body produces only a certain amount of glutamine for the body’s metabolic needs, in stressful conditions it is necessary for this amino acid to be obtained from the outside through food rich in amino acids and pharmacological additives.

How to use: The pharmacological supplement is performed by giving the pharmacological preparation in the form of glutamine-L (as a powder or tablet). During the day take 10-15 gr divided into 2-3 doses of 5 gr (1 teaspoon of powder or tablets).
Better yet get the first dose in the morning, e
the second immediately after the completion of physical activity and e
the third before we go to sleep. If only two doses are taken,
times to be used in the time interval after the activity
physical and before bed.

Glutamine in food products is the most common
in: peas, beans, red meat, fish and products


Carnitine SupplementsL-carnitine is a pharmacological name, a structural supplement for aminacides. In the body it is synthesized in the liver and from there it is transported to other tissues (mainly skeletal muscle and heart), where it plays an important role in the energetic metabolism of fat.

Carnitine has a role in helping fatty acids to enter the mitochondria.
rie and oxidize, the action that accompanies it
release of energy, which is also used for physical activity. Short-chain fatty acids or
with a small number of C atoms can directly and
without the aid of carnitine to enter the mitochondria. So are omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids.

Sports-medical reasons for completion:
* Improves heart muscle function,
* Increased oxygen consumption (for oxygen combustion),
* Increasing sustainability capacities,
* Delayed fatigue etc.
Natural carnitine is found in red meat, and in fruits and vegetables it is not found at all or in very small amounts.

Essential fatty acids and their effects on the health of our body (omega fatty acids)

There are fatty acids that our body cannot synthesize, and they are especially important for metabolic processes. These fatty acids are essential and this group includes omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids. According to their chemical structure, they are part of unsaturated fatty acids.
They are obtained from fish oil, from fish that live in deep and cold sea waters (losos, haringa, ton, crab).

Omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids have health and sports effects:

Omega 3* Necessary for the functioning and development of the nervous system,
* Normal skin care,
* Improving the cardiovascular system and nervous system,
* In addition to the health effect of successful sports,
* Improving oxygen function in muscle cells,
* Improving aerobic metabolism due to the greater presence of O2
* Improving immunity in athletes, etc.

– Based on all these medical-sports benefits, it is preferable to consume fish meat at least twice a week in sports food that contains these fatty acids (haringa, losos), etc.


Colostrum Suppliments– Colostrum is a rich protein substance that is secreted in breast milk in the first days after birth. It is rich in immunoglobulin and other substances that increase immunity and accelerate the development of the body. Colostrum as an adjunct is produced from cow’s milk.

– From a sports-medical point of view, athletes get colostrum for several reasons:
* Fast and complete recovery after strenuous physical activity,
* Supporters of sports immunity,
* Better growth and development in young athletes,
* Maintaining body structure and vitality in older athletes,
* Fast and good recovery after sports injuries,
* Improving sports opportunities.

– Administration method: according to the protocol, 20-40 g of colostrum are taken mainly in powder form or as a liquid, daily for a period of 4 weeks as a recovery period for the athlete. After that comes the 10-day recovery period and again it can be taken as before.

There are no specific problems with colostrum supplementation.

Liquid food

Foods that are easier to prepare to allow more powders rich in carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and vitamins that can be provided are mixed with water or milk to provide a meal that provides effort for the first meal.

– Food is known to be liquid is useful
for athletes you have the opportunity to see more
and at the same time we move away from the given food. This is
practice athletes of other armies and wish
increase lean muscle mass.

– Additions can also be found by athletes
Our service offers a higher attitude
inadequate nutrition (quality and tasteless food) or with hygienic problems during feeding.

– The reason you see there that they are taken with them, not spoiled,
Preparation and Presentation Total for

meal in terms of quality.

Gels carbohydrates for athletes

Gels Carbohydrates provide a high source of carbohydrate concentration up to (50-70%), which are easily metabolized in the process of gaining energy. These may also contain additional amounts of electrolytes. During intake, we should also consume water in order to maintain adequate hydration of the body.

The benefits of this supplement are:

* Gelatin provides a compact source of energy,
during long-term physical activity (e.g.
cycling, marathon),
* They represent a very good source of energy
for athletes at break time between match periods or during tournament matches,
* Present a source of carbohydrates for recovery after physical activity.

– They are also taken before physical activity when athletes cannot consume regular food (suitable during travel).

Sports drinks

Sports DrinkSports drinks present hypotonic or isotonic digestion in 4-8% carbohydrates in combination with electrolytes, minerals and vitamins.

– They are used as a source of energy and a means of rehydration during training and competitions.

– Their use is extended in time before physical activity in order to provide carbohydrates as a constant energy supplier, especially when solid food (eg 30 min 1 hour) should not be taken before the race.

– They are especially useful to take after the end of sports activity in order to become
faster regeneration and rehydration of the organism.
Since it is easy to transport, source
compact of carbohydrates and minerals, it is preferable to take during the trip.

Sports nutrition from wheat products – fruits and chocolates.

– They represent a convenient, tasty and easy-to-eat nutritional combination to be consumed as a source of carbohydrates (especially dietary carbohydrate-rich carbohydrates), protein, minerals and vitamins.

– They are especially adored because of the pleasant aroma and different structure in their composition.

– Used mainly after the end of the activity
physical, for the purpose of rapid regeneration, protein regeneration, mineralization and vitaminization.

– Because they are easy to transport, they are a compact source of carbohydrates and minerals.

– It can also be taken during the holidays in the tournament matches.

– It is preferred during sustainable sports performances because they represent high structural energy meal and are delicious.
– They have an excellent health effect, mainly due to the high quality content (rich in dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins).

Herbal supplements

Herbal SupplimentsThe use of plants as medicinal plants dates back to ancient times in human history. Their use to improve physical fitness has been used since ancient times. Herbal supplements are used by athletes for this purpose: increasing energy benefits, improving the immune system, stimulating muscle growth, losing body weight, etc.
The plants that have shown the greatest effects on the development of physical abilities are:

– Acerola
– Arnika
– Aaron
– Artichoke
– Valerian
– Mushrooms (reishi, shitake)
– Ginko Biloba
– Guarana
– Ehinacea
– Cordiceps

Learn About: Minerals

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