Potatoes and their composition
As is well-known, carbohydrates (sugars) are the primary supply of power worth that man wants.
About 60-65% of this day by day worth is supplemented solely by sugars. One kilogram of potatoes yields about 840 kcal, which is a few third of all of the day by day energy wanted by an grownup.
The caloric worth of potatoes is 4 instances better than that of tomatoes, thrice better than that of carrots, and as a lot as half the caloric worth of eggs and beef.
The entire dietary worth of potatoes is set by the excessive quantity of dry matter 20-30%, the place the primary ingredient is amodonium (14-22%), then proteins (1, 4-3%), mineral salts (0, 8- 1, 6%) and varied nutritional vitamins, the place vitamin C (10-40 mg) predominates.
Starch is undoubtedly the essential ingredient of potatoes. The amount and high quality of amodine determines not solely the significance of potatoes as a meals product, but additionally the technological options as a uncooked materials for industrial processing, for the preparation of many different essential meals merchandise.
The presence of phosphorus in starch within the type of phosphoric acid and its compounds, performs an essential function in fermentative processes and within the hydrolysis of starch throughout its return to porridge.
As a supply of top quality protein, potatoes occupy an essential place amongst different meals merchandise of plant origin.
It has additionally been confirmed that potato proteins are extra simply assimilated in comparison with these of meat. The protein content material in potato grains will increase from the periphery to the middle. That is in the wrong way to rising the starch content material.
Potato proteins include irreplaceable amino acids (not synthesized by the human physique), that are important for the traditional functioning of the physique, corresponding to valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tripofan and phenylalanine.
Potatoes Nutritional vitamins and Mineral Salts: Potatoes are additionally a very good supply of nutritional vitamins. It’s particularly recognized for its excessive content material of vitamin C. In these locations the place potatoes are planted in massive areas and consumed in massive portions, it serves as the primary supply for the provision of vitamin C by the human physique.
The kinds and quantities of nutritional vitamins within the potato tuber are as follows:
Vitamin C 10-40mg per 100 gr of product
Vitamin A 20-90 mg
Vitamin B1 0, 07-0, 1 mg
Vitamin B2 0, 05 mg
Vitamin P 0, 9 mg
In addition to nutritional vitamins B5, B6 (0, 2 mg), B8, and Ok in small quantities. The vitamin C content material is biggest one month earlier than full ripening. Then it regularly decreases, till it reaches the above dimensions.
If an individual consumes 300 g of potatoes per day (it is a scientific norm for an grownup), his physique receives about 5% of the day by day requirement of vitamin C, 15% of the requirement of vitamin B1 and about 5% of vitamin B2.
Potatoes are wealthy in mineral salts, in kinds assimilable by the human physique, corresponding to salts of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and so on. Their content material per 100 g of contemporary product is introduced as follows.
Go 568 mg per 100 gr of contemporary product
Calcium 10 mg
Sodium 2, 1 mg
Iron 1, 21 mg
Mineral salts in potatoes typically have an alkaline response. This function provides much more worth to the potato.
Watch out for solanine
The presence of the alkaloid solanine, a substance with poisonous properties, can’t be talked about right here. Its quantity in contemporary potatoes ranges from 2-10 mg, which doesn’t have an effect on the human physique in any respect.
The rise of solanine content material is observed particularly in inexperienced potato tubers, once they keep in water for a very long time in mild setting. That a part of the floor that’s uncovered to mild has extra solanine.
It’s due to this fact mandatory that in harvesting and storage measures ought to be taken to keep away from the lengthy keep of the potatoes within the solar. It has been scientifically confirmed that solanine causes poisoning within the physique, if the individual takes at the least 200 mg instantly.
This may occur if not lower than 3 kg of potatoes are consumed per day with a content material of seven mg solanine. Virtually such a factor can by no means occur. It also needs to be famous that within the spring the quantity of solanine within the pores and skin of the potato will increase tremendously.
Subsequently in such circumstances, potatoes earlier than cooking for consumption, ought to be deep peeled and particularly within the space across the buds.
Potato and healing values
Potato, along with its worth as a meals product, has discovered broad use in people drugs for the therapy of many ailments.
Potato has lengthy been used as a hypotensive substance (which lowers blood stress). This was later additionally scientifically confirmed. Potatoes decrease blood ldl cholesterol, affecting the metabolism of this substance and that is primarily as a result of excessive content material of vitamin C.
There’s additionally experimental proof that potatoes have the property of accelerating the manufacturing of acetylcholine within the physique, which dilates blood vessels, reducing its blood stress. Using contemporary potato juice within the therapy of gastric and duodenal ulcers has given passable outcomes.
It’s because potato juice reduces the manufacturing of abdomen acidity and neutralizes it. Cooked, boiled, mashed, or juiced potatoes have a constructive impact on the therapy of hyperacid gastritis. It really works properly and can be really helpful in opposition to infections of the small gut, getting used within the type of soups or purees.
It additionally has a constructive impact on sufferers affected by coronary heart illness, when its operate is impaired. It provides the physique with mineral salts, particularly these of potassium, which in coronary heart sufferers their content material within the physique is tremendously lowered.
It’s value noting that potatoes even have diuretic properties. As such it finds use in lots of kidney ailments, even in circumstances of their an infection. Potato can be really helpful for ailments of the black liver, as a result of it regulates the metabolism of water and mineral salts and fixes glucose within the type of glycogen within the liver.
It will also be utilized in dietary meals, to cut back the fats content material within the physique tissues and by regulating fats metabolism basically. For this it’s broadly utilized in physique weight reduction diets, by the consumption of fats by the physique.
Based mostly on a number of exams carried out on greater than eighty thousand sufferers who’ve had an intolerance to any meals (for instance, merchandise containing lactose or gluten), it has been proven that potatoes are the most secure meals product. Of all of the examined, just one % of them confirmed adversarial reactions from the potato (minor digestive issues or allergic pores and skin reactions). Different merchandise that didn’t trigger issues for food-sensitive sufferers had been: grapes, apricots, apples, barley and lemons.
© PHD ANILA KALLESHI – CLINICAL DIETOLOGIST