Nutrients and Protective Substances, Vitamins



Vitamins are natural substances, essential for the normal functioning of the body. They represent complex organic compounds of different chemical nature, which are of great importance for the growth, development and normal functioning of all cells and tissues in the body.

– They are synthesized in plants, and the human body carries them through food of plant and animal origin. Vitamins are transported in two forms: active (immediately after transfer to the body can act, for example, vitamin C, vitamin B-complex) and inactive form or provitamin (after transfer to the body comes the biochemical changes with which provitamin is converted to vitamin form eg beta carotene which is converted to vitamin A).

– According to solubility, they are divided into water-soluble or water-soluble vitamins (vitamins C, B) and fat-soluble or liposoluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, K). Fat-soluble vitamins have the ability to be stored in the body unlike water-soluble vitamins that are not stored, so they need to be transferred to the body regularly every day.

– Vitamins are found in plants, fungi and bacteria. Animals need to consume them with food, and some of them, vitamins A and D, can be converted and stored in the liver and other internal organs. Plants produce them in the form of provitamins, while in the liver of fish and mammals they appear in the form of vitamins. Plants, however, are the basic source of vitamins.

Eating whole fruits, vegetables and whole grains provides all the vitamins your body needs. During the vegetarian diet, special attention is paid to the consumption of vitamins A, D and B12 because it is thought that they can only be found in products of animal origin.

Classification of vitamins

types of vitamins
– Reducing the consumption of certain vitamins in food causes certain damage to normal metabolism, known as hypovitaminosis, while the complete lack of certain vitamins in food causes avitaminosis. However, excessive consumption of liposoluble vitamins in the body is also harmful.
This condition is known as hypervitaminosis.

– Excess waterproofing vitamins in the body do not cause hypervitaminosis, because it is excreted in the urine. During hypo or hyperthermia come various disorders in the body which are manifested by pathological conditions and diseases. There are also conditions when the body must consume vitamins in significant amounts such as during: growth, pregnancy, lactation, high physical activity, etc. Lack of vitamins in the body usually occurs due to insufficient food consumption, impaired absorption or over time the loss of vitamins in the body. Daily needs are different and depend on the type of vitamins.

– In order to carry all the vitamins in the body (qualitatively) and in their maximum concentration (quantitatively), the food must be properly prepared thermally, or used to the maximum in fresh condition, depending on the type of food product. . Food during the day should be varied and contain all the vitamins.

The role of group B vitamins – complex

Vitamins from complex B participate in metabolic processes to receive energy and regulate
metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. So B-complex vitamins do not provide energy.
Its role in the synthesis of nerve cell structures is particularly important in the ability to transmit
impulse through the nerve cell to the muscle itself, thus presenting neuromuscular

Water-soluble vitamins

Vitamin B1 – also known as thiamine or aneurysm, is a vitamin that plays extremely wellrole in the metabolism and functioning of the nervous system. It is sensitive to heat and
has several roles as:
Participates in carbohydrate metabolism,
It is the basic factor for the proper functioning of the nervous system,
Lack causes nervousness, fatigue, heart problems, insomnia, chest pain, loss of appetite, etc.
constipation, etc.
Deficiency causes a decrease in body mass,
Deficiency can cause a disease called beriberi, which is manifested by damage to
cardiovascular, nervous, digestive, etc. systems

Vitamin B1 is very widespread in nature. Found in every fruit, cereal, dark rice, soy,
cabbage, spinach, legumes, potatoes, hazelnuts, etc.

Vitamin B2 or riboflavin – due to its large presence in milk is also known as lactoflavin.
Creating energy is almost impossible without this vitamin and there are several roles:
It is part of the composition of enzymes that are part of the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats
acids, amines and energy-releasing substances,
Lack of this vitamin results in slow growth, damage to the skin, nails, hair and retina (damaged)
Helps in the appearance of sores in the mouth, tongue and eyes,
Improves eyesight and relieves eye fatigue,
During stressful situations, the need for riboflavin increases, etc.
Vitamin B2 is found in milk, meat, cheese, eggs, kidneys, yeast, mushrooms, cabbage, beans,
peas, etc.

Vitamin B3 – found in two forms, as nicotinic acid (niacin, vitamin B3) and as an amide of
this acid, nicotinamide (niacinamide, vitamin PP). The recommended daily dose is 13 to 25 mg.
This vitamin has several roles:
Participates in the metabolism of carbohydrates and their conversion into fats,
It dilates blood vessels and activates neurotransmitters, which act as carriers of impulses in
brain cells.
Regulates blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels,
Lack of this disease causes pellagra (diarrhea, dermatosis, dementia).
Sources of vitamin B3 are, beer yeast, peanuts, fish, meat, milk, e.g. gs.

Vitamin B5 or pantothenic acid belongs to the family of B vitamins. It helps in the construction of cells and the normal growth and development of the organism. It is essential for the functioning of the adrenal glands. It is important for the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats and the release of energy from them. The daily dose for adults is 10 mg. Vitamin B5 has the following roles:
Helps heal wounds,
Prevents infections,
Prevents fatigue,
Helps during stressful situations,
Reduces the harmful effects of overuse of antibiotics,
Helps cure hypoglycemia, duodenal ulcers, blood and skin diseases.
Vitamin B5 is found in meat, wheat germ, liver, kidneys, heart, chicken.

Vitamin B6 or pyridoxine has many functions in the human body. Needed for protein and amino acid synthesis. Affects mood and sleep. Its roles are:
Participates in the prevention of nerve and skin damage,
Reduces the feeling of anxiety in the body,
Enables nucleic acid synthesis,
Participates actively in the formation of red blood cells, etc.
Sources of this vitamin are cereals, red meat, liver, tuna, avocado, etc.

Vitamin B9, or folic acid, is a key factor in DNA synthesis, in the construction of all new cells. Folic acid and folic acid, along with vitamins B12 and C, improve the formation of red blood cells in the spinal cord. Pregnant women should consume 400-800 mmg of folic acid per day, other people are recommended doses of about 400 mmg per day.
Folic acid is widespread in the plant world. Its name is derived from the Latin word “folium” which means. sheet. The best source of folic acid and leaves are: spinach, lettuce, beans, carrots, fruits, wheat germ, nuts, etc.

Vitamins B12 or cyanocobalamin is the only vitamin which in its composition contains cobalt. It is created by microorganisms that live in the organism of animals and humans. There are different roles in the body such as:
It activates folic acid and together with it creates and regenerates red blood cells and thus prevents anemia,
It is essential in protein metabolism,
Helps increase and increase children’s appetite,
Increases energy,
Vitamin B12 deficiency results in severe anemia, brain damage, etc. This vitamin is found in liver, milk, cheese, meat, kidneys, cabbage, spinach, etc.

Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is very important for the normal functioning of the body. It gives vitality and participates in many chemical processes of cells. Vitamin C in the body is not stored and this amount must be carried every day. Lack of vitamin C in the body is an open door to infections and disease.

– Ascorbic acid, otherwise known as this vitamin, plays an important role in the metabolism of folic acid, iron and hormone production. Lack of this vitamin can easily ruin blood vessels and cause them to bleed.

– Manifested by lethargy, pale skin, loss of appetite, loss of ability to work, slight bleeding from the gums, etc. It is often encountered in the early spring period (March, April and May), when the food is very uniform (cereals, meat), during which time fresh foods (fruits and vegetables) are missing. A single orange contains 90 mg of vitamin C, while tomatoes can be rated at 130 mg.

– The daily requirement for vitamin C is 45 mg. It is unstable at high temperatures. It decomposes at a temperature of 60 C, while at 100 C it decomposes without the presence of oxygen.

The role of Vitamins

Vitamin C plays these roles in the body:

* Activates the functions of all cells,
* It is a powerful antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals and slows down the aging process.
* Helps absorb iron in the body,
* Neutralizes blood poisons,
* Helps heal wounds, burns, etc.
* Helps lower blood cholesterol,
* Helps prevent many viruses and bacterial infections
* Strengthens the body’s immune system,
* Inhibits blood and vascular coagulation,
* Helps during healing from colds.

– Vitamin C is found in many types of fruits and vegetables, mainly peppers, lemons, oranges, tangerines, strawberries, green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, cauliflower, broccoli, spinach, etc. Kacha is one of the best natural sources of vitamin C.

Vitamin A (Retinol)

Vitamin A is the first vitamin discovered. It is soluble in fat while stored in the body and does not need daily consumption. It is also known as growth vitamin or as an anti-infective vitamin. It is not stable at high temperature. It is presented in two forms: retinol-found in products of animal origin and provitamin (b-carotene) found in products of plant origin.
Vitamin A these roles:
Creates retinal pigment,
Acts against night blindness and cures eye diseases,
It acts as an antioxidant and prevents the formation of tumors,
Promotes growth, strengthens bones, contributes to healthy skin
Strengthens the immune system,
Creates resistance to infections in the respiratory organs,
Helps heal acne and ulcers, etc.
Sources of vitamin A are: fish oil, carrots, green and yellow vegetables, eggs, milk, etc.

– CAREFUL! Vitamin A given in large doses leads to the situation of hypervitaminosis with toxic effects, characterized by loss of appetite, deterioration, vomiting, visual disturbances, etc.

Vitamin D, namely its active form calciferol, helps the body use calcium and phosphorus, which are the main factors for bone and tooth health. Lack of vitamin D is a consequence of improper nutrition and insufficient exposure to sunlight.
Vitamin D is naturally produced in the human and animal body, especially in fish. Found in the liver. Under the influence of the sun, it is synthesized under the skin with the help of a cholesterol derivative. Vitamin D can also be artificially produced in the laboratory.
Its roles are:
It facilitates the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestines into the blood and contributes to the process of bone and tooth formation,
Vitamin D deficiency in children results in rickets – softening and deformity of the bones, which weaken and cannot keep the body,
Performing neuro-muscular impulse,
Muscle contraction process etc.
Sources of vitamin D are fish meat and oil, milk, butter, egg yolk, mushrooms. Vitamin D is also found in some plants such as avocados, bananas, cocoa, etc.

Vitamin K (against hemorrhage) – does not have any special importance from a sports point of view. It is found in cabbage, spinach, tomatoes, egg yolks, milk and is synthesized by intestinal bacteria with the participation of bile. 1-2 mg per day should be taken. Its absence gives hemorrhage, so it is called anti-hemorrhagic vitamin.

Vitamin E (tocopherol) – is a liposolin vitamin which is deposited in the liver, adipose tissue, heart, blood muscles, adrenal glands and pituitary gland. It is an integral part of all cells, and especially of subcutaneous tissue cells.
Vitamin E has various functions in the body, among which are:
With its antioxidant action, it protects cells from aging,
It supplies the body with oxygen,
Protects the lungs from polluted air, acts together with vitamin A,
It stops clotting and thins the blood,
Soothes fatigue,
Accelerates healing from burns,
Protects against various cancers,
Participates in the formation of reproductive cells in the human body,
Facilitates the functioning of the nervous and pituitary systems, etc.
Vitamin E in food should be represented in the last pre-meal meal in order to prepare the body for physical activity, i.e. increasing the amount of antioxidant substances which creates the possibility for a faster and quantitative neutralization of oxidants, these substances which are released during sports activity.

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