The need for food is the first natural instinct of all living Things – Organic and Inorganic Nutrients
* Nutritionism is a science that studies all reciprocal ratios displayed in between the human body and the food we consume. Nutrition is a relatively new science, who studies the mode of healthy eating as well as research metabolic and physiological reactions of the organism to various diets. The close connection between this science and success in sports activities makes food one of the sciences it offers most to athletes.
* Regular physical activity, in addition to having a good effect on the psycho-physical condition of the athlete, also has a positive effect on his nutritional status. Increasing the level of daily physical activity that an athlete does, however, will require an increase in his daily energy needs, respectively will increase the need to get the most amount of food within the day.
– Good nutrition of athletes, during the training period, made the athlete healthy, in good condition, damaged less frequently and adapted more quickly to the training process. Ideally to have good health, we should have lived in the time and food of our ancestors. This means that we have lived in a clean, pollution-free environment, fed natural foods, fresh and organic, raw, drinking fresh natural water from the spring, doing constant physical exercise and living a quiet life and without stress.
-Unfortunately, today the Western or so-called modern diet reigns supreme, which is the main enemy within the organism.
The role of nutrients
Man finds food in the plant and animal worlds, while from the inorganic part he receives only water, minerals dissolved in it, and sodium chloride. According to this food is a mixture of nutrients. For the normal flow of metabolic processes and physiological functions of the human body, about 40 substances are needed (essential) which are summarized in two major groups of nutrients:
Macronutrients – water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats
Micronutrients – minerals (macromineral and micromineral), vitamins
Nothing in the world would be as boring as eating and drinking if God (the Lord) did not turn it into pleasure, including the need for them.
The role of nutrients in the body is different. They serve as:
1. Energy sources,
2. Materials for the synthesis of new nutrients,
3. Building and protective materials
Finally, they produce substances that the body does not use and shoots in the form of feces and feces. According to this, all nutrients can be divided into 3 groups:
– Nutrients that provide energy
– Construction of nutrients – which are used for the construction, growth, maintenance and regeneration of cells, tissues and organs.
– Functional nutrients – regulate the correct flow of biological processes.
Separation of nutrients depending on the role in the body
Foods high in carbohydrates and proteins and fats
Functional nutrients Substantial fatty acids and essential amino acids and water and minerals, vitamins
Construction of proteins and mineral and water products
Some of the main nutritional goals of athletes can be:
.Preparation of athletes for training
Maintain the level of performance achieved and training
Accelerate recovery after exercise in some sports
Preserving the shape of the body from the aesthetic aspect such as. body building
Maintaining body weight in sports where categorization is required
-The research so far has shown that regular and healthy eating, both temporarily and quantitatively, can significantly affect the performance of athletes and improve athletic performance. Such a well-balanced diet also affects the improvement of sports results.
-A well-known American nutritionist, Dr. Jonng Bowden, in order to increase health and reduce medical visits, proposes:
– Avoid saturated fats in the list of foods consumed,
– Don’t smoke,
– Increase physical activity (isometric and isotonic) and become regular,
– Reduce the use of sugar
– Consume as many fruits and vegetables as possible (eg up to 9 times a day).
– Eat fish at least twice a week.
– To prevent vitamin D, sunbathing is preferred
– Create good family relationships and cultivate a positive spirit.
– Regular exercise in the athlete can improve his endurance (aerobic ability) by up to 40%, while the intensity of work by 25% and vice versa (in case of irregular and unhealthy nutrition).
* The notion of “nutrition” can be defined as a set of processes that involve taking food from the external environment in the body, using it by the body itself, in order to maintain the chemical composition of the body and perform all its functions. . a living organism. Through nutrition, the body receives the energy and nutrients needed for growth, development, regeneration, protection of vital functions and work.
* Regular and rational eating means that there is a balance between what the body spends and what it receives with food (Eh-Ed).
The question is: Will I have enough energy to cope with a marathon run?
Will I have the energy to run faster on short trails?
Will I have the energy to give more strength when lifting weights up to 200 kg?
Will I have the energy to play a football game with the same strength in 90 minutes?
Will I have the mental energy to play the last seconds in a basketball game?
* Based on the questions presented in any sports and sports achievement, the main goal is:
Do I have the energy to win? After that it is logical to give the answer that:
Is energy a seed?
* Where does the energy for our life come from and for performing physical and sports activities?
So the term energy is defined as follows:
Energy equates strength, endurance, speed, and psychological stability with the sole purpose of achieving the best sports results.
Food can be classified based on origin and chemical composition. Food by origin is divided into plants and animals. Depending on the chemical composition the food can be: Organic and Inorganic Nutrients .
Foods of plant origin include: cereals and their processed products, vegetables, fruits, spices, sweeteners, tea, coffee, etc. While foods of animal origin include: milk and its products, meat and its processed products, eggs, fish, fat, etc. etc.
Cereal grains contain 56-80% carbohydrates, 8-16% protein, 2.8% fat, 1% vitamins, 1-3% minerals and 5-16% water. Additives are substances or mixtures of substances with a certain chemical composition which in their raw state are not food, nor nutrients, nor are they characteristic ingredients of food and have no nutritional value. They are added to food in small quantities during production. , processing, recycling, training, etc. Of the carbohydrates, the grains have mainly starch (starch) 55-78%. Milk contains 87.5% water, 12.5 dry matter and therefore has a low energy value of about 280kj / 100gr. Fish contains 70-80% water and 15-20 proteins.
Health comes through the mouth ( Organic and Inorganic Nutrients )
* Nutrients are all those substances (organic and inorganic) that have a special importance in the body, while they are taken through the mouth and, after undergoing the processes of the digestive tract, pass into the blood. , vitamins, mineral salts and water). Foods that can be synthesized by the body are called organic substances (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins), while substances that cannot be synthesized by the body, but found and obtained in nature, are called inorganic substances (minerals, water).
* Muscle work, secretion of glands, retention of membrane potential in nerve and muscle fibers, absorption of nutrients in the digestive tract and maintenance of other physiological functions of the organism, require a constant supply of energy, which is provided by processes. metabolic occurring in the body.
– By metabolism we mean all the continuous processes that take place in the cells, tissues and organs of the living organism, in this case the construction of energy interactions or the release of energy takes place.
Metabolic processes can take place in two directions:
a) Anabolism – which means the biosynthesis of important biological compounds (macromolecules) from nutrients, and
b) Catabolism – which means the separation of these compounds
(macromolecules), which the body builds, into smaller molecules.
These two processes, in the adult organism, must be in balance. Metabolic processes can be studied by measuring the amount of energy the body receives and releases. The unit of measurement for energy is calorie calories (1 kcal = 1000 calories), or kilojoules (1kcal = 4.18kj).
Based on previous calculations for the energy required in our body in calm conditions (basic energy demand) and in terms of physical activity we can conclude that the total amount of energy to be taken in our body is on average 2500 -7000 kcal per day. .
The purpose of Organic and Inorganic Nutrients
Food elements perform three basic functions in our body.
1. Food ingredients that provide energy for human metabolism.
The main and basic ingredients of food that provide energy are carbohydrates and fats.
Proteins can only serve as a source of energy under certain conditions, while vitamins, minerals and water are not a source of energy. 2. Nutrients used for growth, development and regeneration of the body.
This group includes all the nutrients where certain proteins, water and minerals play a major role.
3. Food ingredients, which we use to regulate metabolic processes and physical processes (enzymes, hormones), etc.
Proteins, vitamins and minerals are the basic regulators of matter.
No food product has all the nutrients that a body needs for good health, except to some extent milk. It is considered a unique food with full values.
Of all the chemical elements in the body, only oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen can be found in the elemental state, even in very small amounts. All other chemical elements are included in the composition of Organic and Inorganic Nutrients matter.
Organic compounds in the human body are: Proteins Vitamin Fats Enzymes Carbohydrates Hormones Other compounds: urea, lactic acid. Inorganic compounds in the human body, found in the form of: water, minerals (inorganic salts). Other compounds, HCL (hydrochloric acid), hydrochloric acid. Organic food, organic food or ecologically produced food, i.e. food that has been grown or produced naturally, without insecticides, pesticides, fungicides, artificial fertilizers, artificial colors and food that has not been genetically modified. It is something that we consume and enter the body with food, it builds us and changes us differently from everything we have consumed.
Energy is necessary for the proper and healthy functioning of the body, both in conditions of calm and in conditions of physical activity – sports.
The energy needed by the body to function in calm conditions is called the basic energy need, while the energy needed for physical activity is called the energy needed for physical activity.
The general need for energy for our body is the amount of basic energy needs and energy needed for physical activity.
Energy is what determines the possibility of physical activity progressing. This means that the more energy we have, the more sports activity we can perform.
Total energy for our body is found in food, that is, it is gained through food.
Food energy is converted into energy for the functioning of the systems of our organs to maintain health, as well as energy for work, to perform physical or sports activities.
How much energy we get in the body depends only on the type and amount of food.
Since the functions of the systems of our organs in conditions of calm and in conditions of physical activity are related in physiological terms, it can be said provided that without the right amount of energy, our body can function neither in conditions of calm nor in conditions of activities. . physical or sports.