– Minerals are part of complex organic compounds (proteins, carbohydrates, fats), enzymes and other substances that make up about 3-5% of human weight, i.e. calculated for about 2.1-3.5% kg in people with body weight about 70 kg.
– In the body, minerals are constantly renewed. Through urine, feces and other secretions, about 30 grams of minerals are excreted daily, which are mandatory to be supplemented with food. Some of them are found free or ionizing, i.e. they are ionized in plasma, while others are deposited in the form of salts, especially in bones and teeth, in which they are represented by more than 50% of their mass. The largest source of minerals are plants, products of plant origin.
– Food that is rich in essential minerals
can lower cholesterol, strengthen the system
immune and accelerate wound healing.
They are needed to create blood and bones,
The role of minerals
– Minerals have important functions in the body and are part of the building blocks and functional nutrients. They basically participate as structural elements in: bones, muscles, teeth, blood and hormones. Participate in the performance of many functions in the body: muscle contractions, bone strengthening, heart function, blood coagulation, protein synthesis, red blood cell synthesis, etc.
– Minerals are an integral part of body fluids, where in the form of cations and anions they regulate osmotic pressure, electrolyte and water balance, acid-base and ionic status and enable nerve and muscle stimulation. The most important cations are: sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium, while the anions are: chlorine, phosphate, bicarbonate and sulfates. In intercellular fluid the main cation is potassium and in anions are phosphates. In extracellular fluid the main cation is sodium while in anions it is chloride.
Minerals can be classified as:
1. Macronutrients – which are present in large quantities in living organisms: Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Cl, S.
2. Microelements – trace or oligomineral elements that are present in small amounts in living organisms: Fe, J, Zn, F, Cu, Mn, Cr, Mo, Co, Se. Although present in traces, these elements are essential. Their role is multiple and they serve as an integral part of enzymes and hormones. While those minerals that have been introduced in larger quantities act toxicly.
Important Minerals for Our Body
– Sodium is the main or essential mineral
of the human level. It is the main cation of leaves-extracellular intestine in the plasma of the circle. Play one
role to give in the Distribution balance sheet, Press
osmotic. During the day, with ordinary food -ugly, carried in the body about 8-15gr sodium in the supply of NaCl (kitchen salt) which has been imposed on it boys opportunities. It takes the parties to build bone tissue and keep carbon dioxide from the tissues in the respiratory services.
– Together, calcium, potassium and magnesium enjoy regulating neuromuscular systems, you want the heart muscle. It should be noted that situations of physical activity, followed by heavy sweating, can be done so far in the situation of hyponatremia, which can be very generated and effectively regulated by the transfer of more and salts to the body after physical activity. .
– Sodium decides to regulate blood pressure and nerve and muscle function.
Potassium is one of the most important minerals in the body. Represents a major cation in the intercellular fluid in it which is found 95% of the total amount and with 5% participates in non-cellular fluid. in the organism is present in an amount of about 150-200 gr. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) causes potassium loss as well as loss of appetite with duration or diarrhea. The daily requirement for potassium is 1.5-3 gr. Also mental and physical stress can lead to potassium deficiency.
Potassium plays these roles in the body:
* Helps provide oxygen to the brain,
* Together with Na and Cl they maintain the electrolyte and water balance, ie osmotic pressure,
* Affects the growth process,
* Helps to eliminate waste substances,
* Helps lower blood pressure,
* It is important for the functioning of the heart,
* Helps treat allergies.
* Potassium-containing foods are: tomatoes, spinach,
* green cabbage, peas, rice, beef, bacon, milk, sardines, bananas, etc.
– Calcium in the body is more present than any other mineral. Calcium and phosphorus are essential components of bones and teeth. Most of the calcium in the body
1-1.5 is found in bones and teeth. Calcium and magnesium contribute to cardiovascular health. Lack of calcium in the body leads to the action of heart, nerve, kidney and muscle disorders. Calcium is consumed with food and its use in the body enables vitamin D. The recommended dose is 800-1500 mg.
– Calcium-rich foods are preferred to be represented in the resting phase, immediately after physical activity or the second ration after exercise, and the rest and exercise phase of the athlete (morning ration). Since calcium is essential for muscle contractions, in which at the same time when its amounts are expended, it must be transferred after the activation of physical sports.
– Calcium has the following roles in the body:
* Preserves the strength of bones and teeth,
* Maintains a uniform heartbeat,
* Softens insomnia,
* Foods that contain Ca are: milk, cheese, eggs, soy, meat, fish, nuts …
– Iron is an essential mineral in the human body. The largest amount of iron in our body is found in blood and muscle tissue. The need for iron in our body reaches 15 mg per day. Iron is important and necessary to keep the body alive, it is important for the production of hemoglobin, red blood cells (erythrocytes) and some enzymes.
– Hemoglobin, which contains the most iron, gives it a red color and allows oxygen to be transferred from the lungs to all cells, then recycled and used again, because blood cells are replaced every 120 days.
Lack of iron for a longer time causes red blood cells to fall, resulting in anemia. The most common anemia is in adolescence, as a result of a diet rich in carbohydrates and low iron. The human body has about 4.5-6gr of iron. The daily requirement for Fe is 10-18 mg.
Iron performs the following functions:
* Increases the body’s immune system,
* Contributes to disease resistance,
* Prevents fatigue,
* Gives the skin the right color, etc.
* Iron-containing foods are: liver, kidneys, dried fruits, heart, red meat, spinach, beans, cabbage, fish, etc.
– Phosphorus is stored in bones, teeth along with calcium and magnesium. Participates in the metabolism of carbohydrates, as part of ADP and ADF in which energy is stored. It is present in every cell of the body and is important for the development of metabolism, especially in muscle cells.
Vitamin D and calcium are important for proper phosphorus action. To function properly, phosphorus and calcium must be in a ratio of 2: 1. It is necessary for the proper construction of bones and teeth. It is also important for equal heart function and normal kidney function. Serves to transmit nerve impulses. The recommended daily amount is 800-1200 mg for adults and larger amounts for pregnant and lactating women.
* Growth and healing of the organism,
* Regular cell function,
* Provides energy and strength by helping the metabolism of lipids and starch.
* Foods rich in P are: cereals, milk, meat, fish, eggs, etc.
– Magnesium is an essential mineral – for the human body. Approximately 50% of the total magnesium found in our body is found in the bones, while – while the rest is distributed to the muscles, nervous system (especially the brain) and blood. The required daily dose for magnesium is 300 mg.
– Exercise in conditions of increased physical activity (intensity and duration) increases the need for magnesium up to 400 mg during the day. Magnesium is needed and plays many roles for our body like:
* Magnesium is part of about 300 enzymes that regulate many biochemical processes in the human body.
* Magnesium participates in the creation and transport of energy for performing physical and sports activities,
* Magnesium helps and maintains normal muscle and nerve function,
* Magnesium stimulates immunity and strengthens immunity,
* Magnesium maintains a regular heartbeat.
* Foods rich in Mg are: figs, apples, corn, chocolate …
– Zinc is part of more than 200 enzymes involved in and regulates many biochemical processes in the body. Zn is important for maintaining the immune system, acting as a traffic processor, guiding and monitoring or processing in the body, keeping it enzyme and cellular system. Helps create insulin and is incorporated into its composition. It is important for blood stability and maintaining acid-base balance. Plays an important role in brain function.
– Daily needs are 12-15 mg, and with daily nutrition are consumed about 10-20 m
Selenium and vitamin C as combined act more potent. So these two are antioxidants and
prevent or at least slow down aging. It is thought that the usual daily dose is 50-70 mg.
Regular sports nutrition contains the right amount of selenium every day for the body in peace.
– Physical activity accompanied by the formation of greater free radicals, increases the body’s body
needs this mineral with greater antioxidant potential. Studies have shown that selenium
significantly reduces the level of free radicals during the athlete’s recovery phase. Therefore, she
it is best to supplement selenium immediately after completion of sports activity. Large quantities,
more than 200 mg of selenium per day, can have a toxic effect on the body.
Performs the following functions:
* Preserves elasticity in tissues,
* Has anticancer and antioxidant effect,
* Strengthens the immune system,
* Helps treat and prevent dandruff, etc.
* Foods rich in Se are: meat, fish, cereals, vegetables, tomatoes, cabbage, etc.