Obesity Causes, Diet Treatment and Food
– Obesity (obesity) is a chronic pathological condition of the body that is defined as excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in the body. This condition must be calculated and treated as a chronic disease, which in itself carries a high risk for the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system, and is increasingly gaining the characteristics of a dangerous epidemic of the XXI century.
– From a medical point of view, obesity is defined as an excess of adipose tissue, which can exceed 20% of normal body weight, ie when the perimeter of the abdomen in men is over 100 cm, while in women over 90 cm.
– Maintaining body weight in “normal values” depends on the correlation between three factors: appetite (appetite) and the type of food consumed, physical activity and metabolism at rest. The relationship between input energy and output energy also depends on the state of these three factors, namely whether we will have conservation or energy expenditure.
– Obesity can be caused as a result of genetic factors (25-30%) of cases, unhealthy food, habit of consuming large amounts of food and pathological factors. Excess fat can also accumulate “quietly and slowly,” especially after age 35.
Obesity, the paradox of modern society
– Statistical research shows that being overweight is gaining epidemiological proportions day by day. There are about 1 billion overweight and 300 million obese adults in the world, while 43 million children are overweight and overweight and 92 million are at risk of overweight. The ranking of developed countries with large populations according to the latest WHO publications on overweight and overweight in Europe is as follows: Republika Czecheke, Slovenia, Great Britain, Slovakia, Greece, etc.
– In terms of overweight and overweight in children under 5, BiH, Albania, Serbia, Macedonia lead the dance differently in Kosovo we do not have any accurate statistics but we believe it does not stand better.
– While in the world ranking for the thickest population leads, Great Britain 53%, Germany and the USA with 51%, Italy and Spain with 40%, France with 38% and Sweden with 30%.
– Obesity is responsible for more than 1 million deaths and 12 million patients in Europe and spends up to 150 billion euros a year, of which 57% on health care, 21% on product loss, 22% on informal patient care. .
Consequences of being overweight in human health
– While in some parts of the world the population is starving, in other parts of the world the population is at risk of overeating. According to some research conducted by Harvard University, it has been observed that there is a positive relationship between adolescent overweight (age 13-18 years) and deteriorating health 55 years later. So, if time is affected to reduce the problem of obesity, it will also be possible to reduce the percentage of morbidity-morbidity of the population.
Obese people, with excess adipose tissue (obesity), over time, are more at risk of these diseases:
* Heart failure (especially left heart failure) as a result of increased heart function,
* Diabetes (more than 80% of patients with diabetes are overweight,
* Kidney disease,
* Lung diseases and decreased respiratory function,
* Some types of cancer,
* Menstrual Disorders,
* A large mental load, etc.
Forms of fat mass accumulation
– Based on the form of accumulation of excess fat, we distinguish two types of overweight:
– The central or android type of obesity is more common in men. Excess fat is distributed throughout the upper body. This form of excess fat distribution is more dangerous to health and comes as a result of stimulation.
– Peripheral or gynoid type of obesity is more common in women. Excess fat is spread to the gluteal, abdominal and femoral parts. This form of distribution of excess fat mass is less dangerous to health compared to the above form.
– Weight loss will be followed by fatigue and constant tiredness
excess fat and physical activity and diet
is more successful in the central type (android)
than in the thickness of the peripheral type (gynoid).
As for children, BMI values ??are not static
but vary by gender and age,
while there are still no criteria for measuring perimeter.
– In people with accumulation of adipose tissue around the abdomen (apple shape) fat is localized not only under the skin, but also around organs such as the heart, liver, kidneys and may even penetrate within the organs.
– In these cases, fat impedes blood circulation in these organs and also interferes with their functioning, leading to an insulin balance that further increases fat accumulation, causing metabolic syndrome with all its complications such as diabetes and hypertension. .
– On the other hand, the adipose tissue accumulated in the lower part of the waist does not directly correspond to the insulin imbalance, but over time the fat will extend to the upper part of the waist, thus increasing the risk of various chronic diseases.
Causes of overweight
– The etiology of overweight is quite complex and multifactorial. Although obesity mainly develops as a result of increased food consumption and reduced physical activity, there are many other factors that make a person obese. This includes:
In adulthood, the body’s ability to metabolize food decreases, while physical activity decreases.
Gender – women are more likely to gain weight than men and especially during menopause. While men consume calories more easily as they have more muscle mass.
Genetics – since a person does not always become obese, although he is exposed to obesity factors such as poor eating habits, low activity, etc. of the child who becomes obese is three times higher. Whereas, when both parents are obese, the risk is a greater measure, up to 13 times.
Hormones – there are some hormonal diseases such as hyperthyroidism, Cushing’s disease, etc. Affecting weight gain.
Overweight treatment and management
– The first step in treating overweight is to consume healthy (bio) food, increase physical activity and create good living habits. Ignorance in choosing and buying the right foods has created a kind of malnutrition in the population and especially in the poor, significantly increasing the consumption of foods rich in sugars and animal fats, which are cheaper, but unfortunately harmful to the body. .
– The free market and advertising of food products has created new preferences, so natural foods are being neglected and industrialized ones like Fast Food, Mac Donald, fruit juices, carbonated juices and alcoholic beverages, which are foods with high nutrient content. calories, have invaded our market and tables.
Diet for weight loss
– The weight of the human body is controlled by the amount of calories we take in and spend each day. As we have mentioned in previous topics, the relationship between input energy and output energy determines, among other things, the weight of the human body.
– If we constantly take in more calories than we burn (Eh> Ed), weight gain will still be done and vice versa, if we take in fewer calories and at the same time burn more (diet and exercise) the body weight will decrease.
– Gaining weight in the body is a chronic pathological condition of the body, which develops in a calm form, but which in itself involves many health risks.
– Suffice it to say that in the US overweight ranks first among the factors that seriously endanger health (in second place is nicotine), while within a year over $ 100 billion has been spent for medical purposes by this category of population. . Awareness of these risks encourages continuous efforts to reduce body weight.
– Recently for this purpose drugs such as: pondimin, and redux, have been used, where they have an effect on appetite suppression.
How to lose excess weight?
– Different nutritionists design different dietary programs in favor of this goal. Some of these programs have scientific support, and some more commercial. Some modern diets, which prefer to take different vitamins and nutrients (eg large amounts of caffeine), in order to gain public opinion as if it has a different effect have a commercial purpose.
1. Eat slower and get small food bites. Since the act of chewing sends signals to the CNS, then it is preferable to chew a food bite 20 seconds or 30-36 times,
2. Let’s not forget that about 20 minutes after stopping the meal, we will have the feeling that we are full or not,
3. Consume as much solid food (eg apples) and as few soft foods (eg bananas) as possible.
4. Maintaining a balanced diet (when calorie intake through food is equal to their expenditure), leads to maintaining the achieved body weight. Meanwhile, the breakdown of this balance, depending on whether it will be positive or negative, leads to an increase, respectively to a decrease in body weight.
– There are three ways to achieve a breakdown of energy balance in terms of weight loss:
* Reduce the daily calories consumed through food and continue with the normal expenditure of daily calories,
Getting normal calories through food and increasing their spending (increasing physical activity),
The combination of the above two methods. Reduce your calorie intake through food and increase your spending.
The first method – the reduction of daily calories consumed through food or diet in food, is proven experimentally in all its forms: abstinence from food, diet against carbohydrates, diet on lipids and diet on protein. The result has been a very slow weight loss,
The second method – not very effective, for two reasons: first, at the beginning of physical activity, in most cases, increases the appetite for food and secondly, do not consume too many calories,
The ideal method – for the loss of excess body weight (excess mass of adipose tissue) is the third, the combination of the first method (reducing calorie intake through food) and the second method (increasing calorie expenditure).
The effect of physical activity on weight loss
– The effectiveness of physical activity, in losing excess weight, depends on the frequency, intensity, duration and timing of their implementation.
– In terms of frequency of physical activity, it should be at least 3 times a week, but for a more effective impact on body composition, it is preferable to do physical activity 5 times a week.
– The intensity of physical activity, for the loss of body weight (fat mass), is determined individually, but should always be considered that level of physical work when as a source of energy are used mainly fats (40-60%) and those with intensity over 60%
– The duration of physical activity should be from 30-60 minutes and more, depending on the type and intensity of physical activity performed.
– Meanwhile, to reduce body weight or maintain “ideal” weight, it is preferable to do physical activities twice a day, before the day and in the afternoon, shortly before dinner, because this reduces appetite. It is also preferable to exercise intermittently in the absence of conditioning or overweight (e.g. once 10 min, and a little later another 15-20 min).
Compilation of dietary programs
– Compilation of dietary programs to achieve normal body weight, maintaining good health, requires adherence to certain nutritional rules:
– Diets that disturb the nutritional balance should be avoided. A diet that leaves aside or significantly reduces the consumption of carbohydrates, proteins, fruits or vegetables, reduces the overall energy of the body.
– Foods rich in complex carbohydrates should occupy the main place in the composition of the nutritional ration,
Carbohydrates are the body’s preferred source. In their absence, the body is forced, for energy purposes, to burn its own fats and proteins (including muscles and organs).
– Not only should simple carbohydrates be consumed, but they should always be combined with protein. Proteins maintain the maintenance of blood sugar concentration at normal values, as well as help replenish glycogen stores. On the other hand, taking in carbohydrates releases the hormone insulin. Which helps in protein synthesis. So the combination of these two macronutrients in food is doubly important.
– Fat is an important part of a healthy Diet. They, in the total amount of daily energy, participate with 25-30%. Fats of plant origin are preferred. Their excess in food increases the accumulation of fats in the body.
Proteins in food should be in sufficient quantities, but not in excess. The body’s need for protein is approximately 15% of total daily calories. Their excess is stored in fats, but also worsens kidney function.
– Do not use additional energy substances. Vitamins are not energy-giving substances (although most, out of ignorance, think so). Lack of iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 can cause fatigue, but a well-balanced diet does not allow the lack of any nutrients.
– The planning of food rations should be done in such a way that the body is provided with enough energy when it is most needed. Protein, combined with carbohydrates, should be more than present in the morning and lunch ration. Preferably take food in small portions in small portions during the day.
* The use of red meat should be avoided and fish and poultry meat should be used instead.
* Do not use fried foods,
* Start food with soup and salad,
* Consumption of alcohol (1 gr = 7kcal), coca cola (600 ml = 250kcal) and caffeine should be avoided, while physical activity should be favored, which increase the energy of the output, reduce stress and calm the body in general,
* Drink water, 8 glasses a day
– It has been scientifically proven that those who follow a diet do not follow the rules of nutrition, so during the program several steps must be taken:
1. Relevant anamnesis (overweight awareness, lifestyle habits, diet, general health, physically active life, family overweight, etc.) should be taken.
2. Anthropometric measurements should be made in order to determine body composition.
3. issuance required to calculate daily calories, introduced into the body through food (input energy),
4. Daily calorie expenditure (output energy) should be calculated.