Instructions and Knowledge about Fitness


Fitness instructions and Guidelines

How should we start Fitness training?

– In the first place is the Will. You should always start the workout with a light warm-up, it prepares the cold muscles for regular exercise – with the load you do increasing blood flow to the respective muscles.
At what age can we start exercising, sooner or later?

– Someone may start exercising at the age of 15 and later at the age of 60, where you should first consult a doctor.

How many calories should the body expend during the day?

– One kg of muscle needs about 60-100 calories a day, because when you add 1 kg of muscle through exercise, the body can pass 420-700 every week. While for every kg of fat you only need 6 calories a day to maintain.

What does weight training help us with?
– Accelerates the body’s metabolism
– Increases strength, body resistance
– It makes you feel more energetic-stronger
– Contains mental energy,
Improves muscle tone
– Strengthens ligaments etc.

What should be the division between the series?

– Rest should be a maximum of 45 seconds, depending on the load of the exercise.

How much rest should there be between exercise changes?

– Rest during exercise should be 2-5 minutes.

How Much Should I Exercise?

Minimal exercise muscles should rest for 48 hours.

How many hours are enough to deal with fitness during the day?

-45 min – 1 hour, so train professionals.

How do you breathe during exercise?

– When lifting weights, breathing is a very important factor because direct breathing directly affects the increase of exercise activity.

– When lifting weights, you need to be especially careful not to stop breathing, which is a common occurrence. Breathing is performed at the release stage, when we are losing weight, and exhalation is performed when we lift weights.

– When lifting weights, if the exerciser notices that there has been a disturbance in the rhythm of breathing, then the exercise should be slowed down or stopped and switched to another weight, which contributes to the reduction of rhythmic breathing.

– So, as a rule, breathing is taken when the muscles are released, while breathing is taken out when the muscles are tense.
Breathing should not be done while lifting weights, because the blood needs oxygen, and we also need to exhale to eliminate the remaining substances of the poisonous gases.

Muscle injury
– Muscle injuries can be of different nature and intensity, and usually lead to muscle damage and inflammation due to overload of muscle fibers without their prior preparation, i.e. without general muscle warm-up, then lack of sufficient concentration during exercise, improper way of performing certain exercises or exercises, previously unbearable load for a certain muscle group, sudden or sudden change in the intensity of exercise , etc.
Continuous exercise during injuries can result in: further deterioration of the injury, acute muscle damage can turn into chronic
The necessary condition for the healing of the injury is the rest which in acute injuries lasts relatively short.

Regular form of weight training

– Here are some rules for performing exercises that help develop muscle mass:

– Eliminate body movement and sharp movement during exercise execution.
Body movement or deceptive movement as it is called is responsible for many muscle injuries. Take for example the exercise for the biceps which is executed with the standing rod. During strenuous exercise, most exercisers move the body and make rapid movements during exercise. In this case it can lead to damage to the back and back muscles and also reduces the effectiveness of the exercise, because for the execution of the exercise the muscles of the back, legs, arm muscles and a small percentage remain in the muscles. of the hands – biceps.
For this reason, the weight should be moderate or light so that the exercise can be performed without moving the body and at a controlled pace, as well as the planned muscles and not the unwanted muscles.

The rule of bodybuilding is this: let the muscles lift the weights and don’t let it make vibrations and sharp movements.
Think about the two main parts of the exercise.

– Every repetition you do in each exercise should think about the two most important parts of the exercise, the contracting part and the stretching part.
Never allow the gravity of the soil to stretch instead of the muscles.
This means that the stretching part should be done at a slow pace and the muscles should be engaged and not eliminated by releasing the weight quickly and simply enabling this ground gravity. The fitness rule indicates that each workout should be performed in full swing, from full stretch to full fit and never think about just one part of the exercise.

Leave the ego behind.

– I would say that most when choosing weights in fitness training are based on the effect it will have on those who look around rather than on the effect on their body. If you are more serious about your body than short-term EGO, then you need to lose weight if needed by 75%, and do the exercise to permanently affect your body.
Trainers who use the perfect exercise technique usually have a high level of self-confidence. They best show this in their interest in advancing rather than acting, as well as in lifting weights for themselves and not for others.
Successful bodybuilders feel their muscles, not their weight.
One thing to keep in mind: you go to the gym to develop me and not to trade me.
Holds EGON, under control.

Always think: more tension for your muscles.

– Always try to keep or increase the tension in the muscles you exercise. In short, don’t let your muscles relax or let go during exercise.
The best and simplest method to keep the muscles under tension is not to rest in the initial and final position during the execution of the exercise. The other method is that which does not allow the joints to be blocked, thus eliminating the excessive flow of joints during the execution of the exercise. For example, stopping at the final position during the execution of the exercise of the arms or biceps has absolutely no purpose. You are simply resting between repetitions and enabling muscle relaxation. Muscle relaxation should only be done between groups and not between repetitions

Slowly perform the positive-concentric movement of the exercise.
Biceps exercises
– If you practice the exercise with slow positive movements (lifts), it can have the effect that the negative (slow) movements are slower because the slow positive movements force you to keep in perfect shape. This is because usually during the initial training position, so concentric movement does not allow your muscles to produce more strength and tension to lift weights because this is enabled by fast movement.
If you practice the positive movement more slowly from the beginning of the exercise, then you gain the maximum effect of the exercise, including the final position, which is usually a lost movement.

Slowly perform the negative-eccentric movement of the exercise

Biceps workout
– Slow repetition is difficult repetition but it is much more effective. This technique greatly affects muscle growth and development.
Positive or concentric movement, weight lifting movement lasts 1 to 2 seconds, while negative eccentric movement, weight loss movement should last 3 to 4 seconds.
How slow is the negative movement cannot be said because professional bodybuilders experiment with this movement by executing the negative movement for 5 to 30 seconds


– Systematic physical exercise is a very important factor due to lack of movement and commitment of physical strength in today’s work process of daily life. Exercise can make a major contribution to the prevention of many modern diseases of civilization, such as those of the heart, nervous system, blood fats, diabetes and musculature, as well as reducing the functions of organs and the body as a whole.

– Regular physical exercise not only affects the appearance of the body, but also affects the protection and maintenance of functional abilities at a high level, in mental flow, emotional state, so man forgets all his problems.

– Exercise from time to time does not allow you to maintain and strengthen functional physical abilities, as well as withstand large psychophysical loads.

So regular systematic exercise is a form of behavior on which the athlete has an excellent opportunity to influence the desire to achieve their results. It is therefore recommended that exercise be started gradually, in accordance with your physical condition and weight gain, with caution so as not to lead to bodily injury.

General and specific fitness

General fitness.

-General fitness is divided into 5 components that generally shape our health:

Cardio Vascular systemCardiovascular fitness (aerobic fitness)

Cardiovascular fitness is also sometimes known as patience and is your body’s ability to continuously provide enough energy to support sub-exercise levels of exercise. If we have a good cardiovascular condition, then our health is also good because it helps us in:
– Fat metabolism – Improving oxygen supply – Quick removal of various wastes from various processes occurring in the body – Reducing stress

Fitness have so much Benefits


Force– Strength is defined as the ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert a force to overcome a resistance. Strength is important for our health because it enables us:
– Avoid injuries
– Maintain good physical posture
– Stay independent (older), etc.


flexibility Flexibility is the movement available in our joints, usually controlled by the length of our muscles. This is often thought to be less important than strength, or cardiovascular ability. However, if we are not flexible our movements decrease and the joints become rigid. Flexibility in sports allows us to perform certain skills more efficiently, for example, a gymnast or dancer or diver should be very flexible, but it is also important in other sports to increase performance and reduce the risk of injury.
Flexibility helps:
Prevent injuries
Improve attitude
Reduce back pain
Keep the joints healthy
Improve balance during movement

Flexibility development

– Improving flexibility, as well as developing other skills, is a slow process. To increase the level of joint movement, the muscles must be stretched over their normal resistance point. This should be done daily with appropriate flexibility exercises. There are two main types of flexibility exercises:

– Active extension
– Passive stretching

– In active muscle stretching, the person controls movement. These exercises are always done at the end of the position – static exercises, or moving along the entire amplitude of the movement – dynamic exercises. In passive extensions the exercises are performed only at the end of the position, the static type of exercise.

– The partner controls the movement, so great care is needed. The person is activated in the final (final) position and the partner progressively exerts pressure. At this point the person should focus on relaxing the muscles that are stretched. Static passive elongation exercises can create good improvements in movement amplitude

Muscle stability

-Unlike strength, is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to make repetitive contractions (contractions) over a period of time. Muscle endurance is important in sports such as football: (repetitive jumps and ball kicks), tennis, swimming, etc. Muscle stamina is sometimes confused with muscle strength. The ability of muscles to perform a tireless action is known as muscle endurance. This is the ability of the muscle, whether in a group or divided to support contractions against repeated resistance for an extended period of time. This is related to muscle strength and cardio-respiratory stability.

Body composition

– Body composition is the amount of bones, muscles, cartilage, fat, etc., that make up our body. In terms of health, fat is the main point of interest, the amount of fat varies from person to person and healthy averages vary between gender and age. The healthy amount of fat for a man is between 15 and 18% for men, while for women it is higher at 20-25%. It is important to maintain a healthy percentage of body fat, because excess body fat can contribute to the development of a number of health problems, such as heart disease and diabetes.
Doing strain on joints, muscles and bones increases the risk of injury

Program formulation formulation.

How is the program formulated?

– To achieve what you want in addition to exercise, the first thing you need to know is the formula of a program plan, taking into account the rules of implementation in that program.

What should a exercise program contain?
Number. of exercises
Number. of repetitions

Cardiac Rhythmic CONTROL

– To assess functional ability, it is necessary to do a pulse test every day, as soon as we wake up in the morning, before we start exercising. We do this measurement from a sitting position with the body lying down, or sitting quietly for 5-10 minutes. Place the three middle fingers of the right hand on the arteries of the pelvic joint and count the stroke to 10 or 15 seconds and multiply that number of heart beats by 6 or 4 and subtract the number of heart beats by 1 min. This number of heart beats gives the right result, which should be 60-70 beats in 1 minute. It should always be kept at that level. If the number of heart beats exceeds 80 or more per minute, it is a bad signal for the practitioner’s health and in this case the doctor should be notified. It should be noted that the pulse rate does not depend only on the ability of the heart, ie.

– If you want to follow the work of your heart for longer than exercise, then do this test: Exercise half time to 45 seconds, so that your hands are calm, and after you have completed the exercise of 30 and a half sessions, immediately measure pulse in time. of 15 sec and multiply that number by four. Then pause for a minute and again measure the pulse, at a time of 15 seconds and multiply the number obtained as before by four and so you get the pulse rate number

– Motor tests are of particular importance because we use them to test physical abilities and from them we evaluate the various skills that athletes possess.

– We drivers have different assessments based on the goal we want to achieve:

A. Test for assessing aerobic stability:
– Ship test – Breast test

B. Experimental force test tests: – Long jump from the ground,
– Jumping from one place to another.

C. Skill assessment test:
– Illinois Agility Test

Ç. Muscle stability assessment test:
– Lifting the leg muscles and triceps muscles

D. Test for assessing the muscular strength of the hands:
– Throwing the medical ball from the shoulder position.

DH. Equilibrium test:
-The stork test

E. Flexibility assessment tests:
– dynamic flexibility
– static flexibility

A. Test for assessing aerobic stability:
Ship transfer test

– This type of test was first published in 1982 by Leger and Lambert. It is used to test the maximum oxygen uptake vo2max, while it has found wide use especially by athletes, coaches and individuals, whose physical activities are based on short runs and constant change of direction. The test is based on the direction of the units tested below and above, between the two lines, 20 meters apart. The test consists of 21 levels, each level has sub-levels, while from level to level the running speed increases.

– During the execution (testing), the test holder must break or cross the last line, while the running speed is adjusted to the “beep” signal that is heard along with other information about the levels of direction, on the cassette player. The time between the two signals for each minute (level) is shortened. There are several versions of the transfer test, but the most commonly used version consists of an initial speed of 8 km / h, which increases by 0.5km / h every minute.

– Testing (evaluation) of the test subject is done according to the levels and below the candidacy levels before they are no longer able to follow the rhythm affected by the “bip” signal. Moreover, the points realized can easily be calculated in the values ??of VO2 max. To perform the test, you need a flat, non-slip surface and marked at 20 m with adhesive tape, tape tape with “bip” signal and other instructions, as well as notebooks (sheets) for recording levels and mother under the direction. This test, in the VO2max assessment, is in a high correlation with laboratory tests.

– The advantages of this test are based on testing the aerobic capacity (with maximum loads) of a large number of subjects. Meanwhile, the name of this test can be taken as a fact that the motivation for the realization of the test and the environment where the test was performed, can affect the final result (in the number of levels and below the candidacy levels). Before approaching the test, the subject should be careful to hydrate it forward as well as have comfortable clothing. The tester must be careful in the distribution of energy, in the most economical and proportional manner, from level to level (adapting to the “bip” signals).

– This test has also been used in the selection of athletes in some sports. Normal transfer test values ??for some sports, for both women and men

Level direction
S  subcutaneous direction

B. Explosive force assessment tests:
– Jumping from one place to another

This test assesses the explosive force of the lower limbs. Ability to jump lengthwise from the ground.
Instruments: Metal gauge located on both sides of the place for casting.

Task description:
Starting position: The test taker stands facing the direction of the jump in the upright position, standing with broken legs on the knees that enables the most successful jump.

– Performing the task: Testee testament dances three times, repeating the dances one after the other. The length of the jump is measured by the push line on the trail
(end part). The result is marked with an accuracy of 1 cm.

– Assessment: The length of the jump is measured from the push line to the trail (bottom). The result is marked with an accuracy of 1 cm.

They jump from one place to another.

– Jumping to the height of the site is estimated the explosive force of the lower limbs.

Instruments: Metal gauge placed on both sides of the wall for casting. Height on the wall marked in cm up to 3 m high.

Task description:
– Initial position: The subject of the test is placed ribs near the wall, the legs are located at the width of the pelvis. The test collector raises his hand which is close to the wall and with the palm extended as far as possible the tester records the height of the first touch, the tester jumps vertically to the height (three attempts) reads the best result from the first touch in the jump maximum, reads the difference in cm.

Performing the task: The test taker raises his hand which is close to the wall and with his palm outstretched as far as possible, while the tester records the height of the first touch, the subject of the test is thrown vertically to the height (three effort). The best result is read from the first touch to the maximum jump, the difference in cm is read. The result is marked with an accuracy of 1 cm.

Assessment: the best result is read from the first touch to the maximum jump, the difference in cm is read.

Skill assessment test.

Agility test 

AgilityTask description:
– For the execution of this test, a non-nutrient pathway, 10 m long and 5 million wide, is required. Four conical elements are used to mark: the starting point of the test, the end point, and the two points of the direction of honor. Four other conical elements are lined up in the middle of the field starting 2.5 m from the starting point (in the direction of the point where the test ends). From the first cone, the other cones, separately, are placed at a distance of 3.3 m in a straight line.

Realization of the task:
– The subject should lie on the floor, with his head at the beginning of the starting line and his hands at shoulder level. In the initial command “start”, the measurement of time (stopwatch) begins, while the athlete gets to his feet as quickly as possible and directs the path according to the instruction given, not throwing any cone, on the line where the test ends when the time measurement stop (stopwatch) is stopped.

– You can try most of the muscles in the body using exercises that hit muscles or muscles
you want to try and execute as many repetitions as you can. This measures muscle stability,
for example, pushing, lowering, biceps tricep etc.

Test for assessing the muscular strength of the hands.

– Throwing the medical ball from the supine position This test assessed the strength of
wings in throwing ball weighing 3kg. Instruments: Medical ball weighing 3 kg, metal
meter placed on both sides of the site for throwing the medical ball.

– Description of the task:

–  Starting position: Tested person is lying down, facing the direction of the medical ball, with
the legs were stretched at the level of the ankles and holding the ball with two arms outstretched

– Realization of the task:
Tested from the position of the back from the direction of the plateau throws the medical ball as
as much as possible.
The task is repeated twice.
– The test collector is in the last position so that the reading is as accurate and possible as possible
casting regularity is observed. – Assessment: The result of hed

The ratio between strength and durability

– Strength is an important factor in local muscle stability. It is natural that it is about 50 kg.
which is used to execute certain exercises, in the subject of different levels of force, will cause
various effects.
The weakest should engage almost the maximum force for the acquisition of
given the weight during the workout, while the duration of his work will be very short, up to
stronger subject this work with the weight of the same load will last much longer

The relationship between strength and flexibility

– Flexibility means the ability to perform movements with maximum and optimal amplitude
strength. Whether a node will be more or less flexible, as man has several nodes that are many
flexible and some less flexible, depends on the muscles that pass over those joints and control
it, by the node itself and the muscle tissue.


– At this age, special attention should be paid to the further development of students, avoiding
exercises with static loads and using strength, speed and endurance exercises but in
moderation, for each student in particular. At this age, you need to use exercises that
strengthen the heart and increase the body’s breathing invitations, and these exercises are:
walking, running, skiing, cycling, gymnastics, sports games and exercises to strengthen
abdominal, back, leg, leg muscles. and pelvic girdle mobility.

– In most cases, it also depends on the conditions to be actively involved in verifying
interest in body movement, sports, entertainment, in accordance with the characteristics of
that era in order to appropriate and enrich human qualities and relationships with others.

– In this period of development, we must work for the complete formation of the apparatus for
movement, in the development of psychophysical abilities, in the maximum development of
bodily functions, on morality, character, and dose of burden. It is special
importance that at this age, conditions must be created for the approach of individual creativity
opportunities, which appear in the comprehensive development of the body, in health and
bodily abilities.

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